Comprensión de Lectura

Sección 1

Ejemplo de examen

Ejemplos de reactivos de la sección de Comprensión de Lectura

Instrucciones

Directions: Read the following passage and choose the best option that completes or answers each question.

Text 1

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Economics is the social science that deals with the production, distribution,
and consumption of goods and services. Business may refer to any gainful
economic activity or, more narrowly, to organizations that produce and
distribute commodities. Basically, economics is a branch of investigation and
study, while business connotes activity. Yet, the two terms increasingly
overlap. Once thought of as a knack or skill that could never be taught in
school, business has developed claims to scientific status in the twentieth
century. Today, there are schools of business administration that, much like
departments of economics, engage in study and research.
          Both economic theory and the growing emphasis on the study of
business have spilled over from the universities into the public forum.
The budget deficit, foreign trade deficit, and stock market boom of the 1980s and
early 1990s have combined with the recent recession and decline of interest
rates to pique popular interest in economic issues. Less obvious but no less
important, the deregulation of financial institutions by the federal
government, the vast growth of pension funds within the last twenty years,
and recent changes in the federal tax code have raised the threshold of
financial knowledge for Americans. As late as the 1950s, banks rarely
advertised, savings and loan associations did not offer checking accounts,
and insurance companies concentrated on selling insurance. Now, all of these
institutions advertise and compete with one another by offering similar
services. For example, all of them offer pension and retirement plans, and
individual investors must be able to sort out and assess their rival claims.
          To do so, ordinary Americans need not become professors of
economics; but they must understand the difference between stocks and
bonds, and they should understand why the stock market tends to decline
when the interest rates rise.

Questions

1. What is the topic of the passage?
A) Business and its relation to economic issues
B) Business and economics
C) The teaching of economics in business schools
D) The American economic system
2. What is the purpose of the passage?
A) To advise people to study economics
B) To discredit the services that banks and other financial institutions provide
C) To stress the differences between economics and business
D) To discuss the increasing interest in the study of economics and business
3. The word “overlap” in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A) completely oppose.
B) hardly correlate.
C) coincide partly.
D) absolutely distinguish.
4. The words “these institutions” in lines 20 and 21 refer to
A) banks, savings and loans associations and insurance companies.
B) federal government and financial institutions.
C) universities and schools of business administration.
D) advertising companies.
5. According to the author, why is it important for Americans to understand that there is a difference between stock and bonds?
A) To understand a rise in the interest rates and its effects on stock markets
B) To be able to evaluate those services offered by competing institutions
C) To compete with each other by offering better investment opportunities
D) To participate in political and economic debates throughout the country

Instrucciones

Directions: Read the following passage and choose the best option that completes or answers each question.

Text 2

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The study of living things on earth has a long history. Because of the incredible
richness and diversity of life, most of the effort in biology and its predecessor,
natural history, has been expanded in an attempt to describe what there is
―simple exploration and cataloguing. The classical sciences of descriptive
botany and zoology, with their emphasis on classification, are examples of this
sort of work. The division of living things into the plant kingdom and animal
kingdom (plus three more kingdoms added by modern scientists to describe
microscopic organisms and fungi), and the collection of all living things into a
coherent classification scheme, are the fruit of this work. During the past century
and a half, however, two important discoveries have changed the face of the life
sciences.
The first of these was the development of the Theory of Evolution by Charles
Darwin and others. The mechanism of natural selection gave naturalists for the
first time a way of answering questions about how life came to have the forms it
has, rather than just questions about what those forms are. The great social and
intellectual turmoil triggered by Darwin’s work is interesting, of course, but is
not relevant from a purely scientific standpoint. What does matter is that we can
now understand how the observed diversity of living things could have arisen
through the action of a simple and easily comprehended mechanism. The
original Darwinian notions have been modified and expanded since his time, of
course, and there is still debate about the pace at which species evolve.
Nevertheless, the main principle of Darwinism ―that living things change and
adapt in response to their environment― has been incorporated as one of the
pillars of the modern life sciences.

Questions

1. What is the topic of this passage?
A) Darwin and the theory of evolution
B) The diversity of living things
C) Important contributions to life sciences
D) The beginnings of natural history
2. The word “its” in line 2 refers to
A) biology.
B) natural history.
C) predecessor.
D) effort.
3. All of the following can be classified into the kingdoms mentioned above EXCEPT
A) a hyena
B) ma ushroom
C) a laurel
D) a gold nugget
4. The word “turmoil” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
A) fight.
B) confusion.
C) improvement.
D) fairness.
5. The passage following this one will most likely discuss
A) the second discovery that contributed to change life sciences.
B) other theories that contradict the Darwinian notions on evolution.
C) detailed information about the classification mentioned in the introductory paragraph and its influence on new scientific trends.
D) a series of chronological events dealing with the evolution of species and their eventual adaptation to their environment.

Instrucciones

Choose the correct answer in order to complete the following passage.

Text 3 (Cloze)

There are people who (1)_____ they are not influenced by advertisements. They buy only (2)_____ they want to buy and they know what they want. (3)_____, they buy products that are familiar to them because the brand (4)_____ have appeared so often in newspaper advertisements and television commercials (5)_____ they recognize them immediately when they see them on the shelves of the supermarket. Shoppers are slow to change their habits and it needs a long and persistent campaign on the part of the advertiser to (6)_____ them that the new product is worth trying. Possibly the (7)_____ products to sell are those which claim to alter our physical (8)_____. Most of us dream of looking more attractive, stronger and healthier than we are. (9)_____ only we had the self-confidence of the people we see smiling at us from advertisements, all our problems would be (10)_____, or at least so we tell ourselves. We only half believe it, but we go out and buy the product all the same.

Questions

1.
A) had believed
B) believed
C) is believing
D) believe
2.
A) whom
B) whose
C) what
D) who
3.
A) In spite of
B) However
C) Notwithstanding
D) Despite
4.
A) industries
B) names
C) papers
D) announcements
5.
A) that
B) than
C) this
D) thus
6.
A) encourage
B) prove
C) suggest
D) convince
7.
A) easiest
B) hardest
C) most difficult
D) smallest
8.
A) education
B) situation
C) appearance
D) looking
9.
A) But
B) If
C) So
D) How
10.
A) solved
B) increased
C) disappeared
D) deleted

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